Cole, D. (2008). Constructive criticism: The role of student-faculty interactions on African American and Hispanic students’ educational gains. Journal of College Student Development, 49(6), 587-605.
Using a longitudinal sample of 1,422 African American and Hispanic students, the purpose of the study was to examine the effects of faculty constructive criticism on students’ GPA and educational satisfaction. The main premise suggested that student-faculty interactions, interpreted more broadly under the concept of constructive criticism would offer a more useful approach for understanding the complex nature of faculty feedback on students’ educational outcomes. While the general premise was supported, it was concluded that constructive criticism within an educational environment of ‘wise-schooling’ could offer useful opportunities for faculty to enhance minority students’ academic success and educational satisfaction.